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APA Style (6th ed)

Personal Communication

NOTE: This page reflects the old version of the APA Publication Manual (6th ed). If you require the current version, please see APA Style (7th ed)

The Basics

Personal communications include any unpublished (or informally published) content that cannot be retrieved by others. Example, conversations, lecture notes, posts from a private social media account, etc. No reference entry is required.



Provide an in-text citation only

(K. Oakey, personal communication, June 15, 2018)

See the Publication Manual: 6.20 Personal Communications

Your professor may have different citing expectations than library staff. Always check at the beginning of term and before starting assignments that the citing rules you are using are appropriate for your class.