Online Teaching & Learning

This guide was created in partnership with The Centre for Teaching and Learning & Library and Learning Services.

Further Reading


Angelo, T., & Cross, K. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Conrad, R.M., & Donaldson, J.A. (2012). Continuing to engage the online learner: Activities and resources for creative instruction. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Kennedy, S. (2017). Designing and teaching online courses in nursing. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Ko, S., & Rossen, S. (2010). Teaching online: A practical guide (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.

Linda B. Nilson, N., & Ludwika A. Goodson, G. (2017). Online teaching at its best: A merger of instructional design with teaching and learning research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

McTighe, J., & Wiggins, G. (2013). Essential questions: Opening doors to student understanding. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

O'Reilly, D., & Kelly, K. (2008). Assessment and evaluation in education for a digital world: Advice, guidelines, and effective practice from around the globe. Vancouver, BC: BCcampus and Commonwealth of Learning.

Wiggins, G. P., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (Expanded 2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA : ASCD.

Veletsianos, G. (2020). Learning online: The student experience. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Gaytan, J., & McEwan, B. (2007). Effective online instructional and assessment strategies. The American Journal of Distance Education, 21(3), 117–132.

Johnson, S, & Aragon, S. (2003). An instructional strategy framework for online learning environments. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2003(100), 31-43. Retrieved from

Pauli, C. R. (2010). Assessing the online learner: Resources and strategies for faculty, by Rita M. Palloff and Keith Pratt. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 11(2), 141-144. Retrieved from

Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2010). Assessing the online learner resources and strategies for faculty. Continuing to Engage the Online Learner, Rita-Marie Conrad, J. Ana Donaldson Seawell, Jeanne. Firth, Karen. Colvin, Martha. Online Assessment Strategies A Primer. Journal of Online Teaching and Learning 6(1).

Sewell, J., Frith, K. H., & Colvin, M. M. (2010). Online assessment strategies: A primer. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 297. Retrieved from

Websites, News, Blogs:

Association of College and University Educators. (n.d.). Welcome to ACUE’s online teaching toolkit. Retrieved from

Boettcher, J.V. (2013). Ten best practices for teaching online quick guide for new online faculty: Designing for learning 2006-2012. Retrieved from

Darby, F. (n.d.). How to be a better online teacher: Advice guide. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from

Digital Learning Toolkit. (n.d.). Online course design guide. Retrieved from

Hodges, C., Moor, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020, March 27). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. Educause Review. Retrieved from

Miller, M. (2020, March 9). Going online in a hurry: What to do and where to start. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from

Kelly, R. (Ed.). (n.d.). Assessing online learning: Strategies, challenges and opportunities. Retrieved from

Quality Matters. (n.d.). Helping you deliver on your online promise. Retrieved from

University of Waterloo. (n.d.). Centre for extending learning: How do we create valuable online learning experiences? Retrieved from


Association of College and University Educators. (2020, April 9). Webinar recording: Organizing your online courses [Video file]. Retrieved from

Avenues: The World School. (2013, February 28). Grant Wiggins – Understanding by design (1 of 2) [video file]. Retrieved from

Bryant University. (n.d.). Teaching online in a pinch [Tutorial]. Retrieved from

Gigliotti, G., & Devanas, M. (2012). Understanding assessment options in online courses [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from


Biech, E. (2015). 101 ways to make learning active beyond the classroom. Hoboken, NJ: Pfeiffer.

Howard, J. R. (2015). Discussion in the college classroom: Getting your students engaged and participating in person and online. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

LaBorie, K., & Stone, T. (2015). Interact and engage!: 50+ activities for virtual training, meetings, and webinars. Alexandria, VA: ATD Press.

Misseyanni, A., Lytras, M. D., Papadopoulou, P., & Marouli, C. (2018). Active learning strategies in higher education: Teaching for leadership, innovation, and creativity. Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Wiggins, A. (2017). The best class you never taught: How spider web discussion can turn students into learning leaders. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

William, A. (2015). Teaching in a digital age (2nd ed.). Victoria, BC: BCcampus. Retrieved from

Websites, News, Blogs:

Anstey, L., & Watson, G. (2018, September 10). A rubric for evaluating e-learning tools in higher education. Educause Review. Retrieved from

Bates, T. (2014, December 1). Can you do experiential learning online? Assessing design models for experiential learning [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Bailey, V. (2013, April 13). Interactive elements in e-learning [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Cavanagh, S.R. (n.d.). How to make your teaching more engaging: Advice guide. Retrieved from

Kuhlmann, T. (n.d.). PowerPoint for e-learning [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Kuhlmann, T. (n.d.). Visual & graphic design [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Malamed, C. (n.d.). Using wikis for learning and collaboration. Retrieved from

Mansfield, D. (2018). 15 creative exercises that are better than brainstorming. Retrieved from

McCleskey, J. (2009). Five e-learning design strategies that keep learners coming back for more. Learning Solutions Magazine. Retrieved from

Nelson. W. (2016, June 6). Online experiential learning: Engaging students through real and virtual activities [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Pappas, C. (2014). 7 tips to develop a successful interactive elearning strategy. Retrieved from

Salmon, G. (n.d.). E-tivities – Introduction. Retrieved from

Salmon, G., (n.d.). The five stage model. Retrieved from

Sheridan Library. (2020). Open educational resources – free images. Retrieved from

Smith, G. (2013, September 25). 24 essential mind mapping and brainstorming tools. Retrieved from

Thompson, M. (2017). 6 reasons why interactive narrative learning is effective. Retrieved from

University of Waterloo. (n.d.). Developing online learning activities for blended courses. Retrieved from

University of Waterloo. (n.d.). Collaborative online learning: Fostering effective discussions. Retrieved from


Ackmann, A. (2018, September 18). Learning Brightspace by D2L [LinkedIn Learning]. Retrieved from

Malamed, C. (Producer). (2019, November 10). ELC 058 virtual training is much more than a presentation [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from


King-Sears, M. (2009). Universal design for learning: Technology and pedagogy. Learning Disability Quarterly, 32(4), 199-201.

Morra, T., & Reynolds, J. (2010). Universal design for learning: Applications for technology-enhanced learning. Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges, 15(1), 43-51. Retrieved from

Ouellett, M.L. (2004). Faculty development and universal instructional design. Equity & Excellence in Education, 37(2), 135-144. doi: 10.1080/10665680490453977

Poore-Parisea, C. (2010). Online learning: Designing for all users. Journal of Usability Studies, 5(4), 147-156. Retrieved from

Websites, News, Blogs:

Barber, C.R. (2020, March 2). Promoting online learners’ social-emotional growth: A Montessori perspective. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from

Digital Learning Toolkit. (n.d.). Creating content relationships. Retrieved from

Open Learning and Educational Support. (n.d.). Universal instructional design (UID): A workbook for faculty teaching at a distance [PDF file]. Retrieved from

Peterson, A. (2016, December 12). Five ways to make your online classrooms more interactive. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from

Kuhlmann, T. (2019, May 28). How to build meaningful e-learning courses [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Kuhlmann, T. (2015, June 2). Creating a pre-assessment scenario for e-learning [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Ragan, L.C. (2018, February 14). How do you make individualized connections to your students via online learning? [Blog post]. Retrieved from


Teach for Life. (2017, September 21). Prior knowledge [YouTube]. Retrieved from


Arbaugh, J. (2010). Sage, guide, both, or even more? An examination of instructor activity in online MBA courses. Computers & Education, 55(3), 1234-1244.

Baker, J. (2004). An investigation of relationships among instructor immediacy and affective and cognitive learning in the online classroom. Internet & Higher Education, 7(1), 1-13.

Dennen, V., Darabi, A., & Smith, L. (2007). Instructor-learner interaction in online courses: The relative perceived importance of particular instructor actions on performance and satisfaction. Distance Education, 28(1), 65-79. Retrieved from

Websites, News, Blogs:

Kuhlmann, T. (2020, March 3). Effective communication for online learning [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Kuhlmann, T. (2020, March 10). How the communication process impacts e-learning [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Poe, M, & Stassen, M.L.A. (Eds.). (n.d.). Teaching and learning online: Communication, community and assessment [PDF file]. Retrieved from


Association of College and University Educators. (2020, April 7). Webinar recording: Managing your online presence [Video file]. Retrieved from

Websites, News, Blogs:

AllUDL. (n.d.). Choice of assessment: Multiple means of expression. Retrieved from

Digital Learning Toolkit. (n.d.). Learner feedback. Retrieved from

Gooblar, D. (2018, May 16). Give students more options hen they have to take your course. The Chronical of Higher Education. Retrieved from

McMurtrie, B. (2020, January 23). What happens when you give students control of the syllabus? The Chronical of Higher Education. Retrieved from

Roper, A.R. (2007, January 1). How students develop online learning skills. Educause Review. Retrieved from

Sardo, C., & York, J. (2020, March 16). Five ways to promote student autonomy in online discussions. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from

Wilson, D., & Conyers, M. (2018). Guiding students to be independent learners. Retrieved from

Websites, News, Blogs:

Hogan, K.A., & Sathy, V. (2020, April 8). 8 ways to be more inclusive in your teaching. The Chronical of Higher Education. Retrieved from

National Center on Accessible Educational Material. (n.d.). Module 2: Accessible documents. Retrieved from

Lightbulb Moment Blog. (n.d.). Facilitator guide for live online classroom [Blog post]. Retrieved from

UDL On Campus. (n.d.). UDL in higher education. Retrieved from

University of Victoria. (n.d.). Creating an online community. Retrieved from

Wehler, M. (2018, July 11). Five ways to build community in online classrooms. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from


Garver, B.L., Larimer, A., Krafcik, D., Koh, Y., & Ham, D. (2020, March 27). Studio-based online learning: Building community and engaging design at a distance [Video file]. Retrieved from


Amara. (n.d.). Caption, subtitle and translate video. Retrieved from

oTranscribe. (n.d.). oTranscribe: A free web app to take the pain out of transcribing recoded interview. Retrieved from

Wave. (n.d.). Wave web accessibility evaluation tool. Retrieved from


Benson, R., & Brack, C. (2010). Online learning and assessment in higher education. Witney, UK: Chandos Publishing.

Conrad, D., & Openo, J. (2018). Assessment strategies for online learning: Engagement and authenticity. Edmonton, AB: AU Press.

Fee, K. (2009). Delivering e-learning: A complete strategy for design application and assessment. London, UK: Kogan Page.


Bengtsson, L. (2019). Take home exams in higher education: A systematic review. Education Sciences, 9, 267. Retrieved from 

Garside, J., Nhemachena, J. Z.Z., Williams, J., & Topping, A. (2009). Repositioning assessment: Giving student the 'choice' of assessment method. Nurse Education in Practice, 9(2), 141-148.  

Websites, News, Blogs:

Digital Learning Toolkit. (n.d.). Assessment. Retrieved from

The George Washington University. (n.d.). Ideas for assessment. Retrieved from

Jeffs, C., & Piera, Y. (2016). Focus on formative feedback for teaching development: A guide [PDF file]. Retrieved from

University of Waterloo. (n.d.). Learner-centred assessment. Retrieved from

University of Waterloo. (n.d.). Making the transition to online exams. Retrieved from


Ackmann, A. (2018, September 18). Set up an assignment rubric [LinkedIn Learning]. Retrieved from


Brookfield, S. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 

Cranton, P. (2016). Understanding and promoting transformative learning: A guide to theory and practice (3rd ed.). Sterling: VA: Stylus Publishing.

Cranton, P. (2006). Understanding and promoting transformative learning: A guide for educators. (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Jarvis, P. (2006). Towards a comprehensive theory of human learning: Lifelong learning and the learning society, Volume 1. New York, NY: Routledge.

Mezirow, J., & Taylor, E. W. (2009). Transformative learning in practice: Insights from community, workplace, and higher education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.  

Weber, S. & Mitchell, C. (1999). Reinventing ourselves as teachers: Beyond nostalgia. Falmer Press.  


Cranton, P., & Roy, M. (2003). When the bottom falls out of the bucket: Toward a holistic perspective on transformative learning. Journal of Transformative Education, 1(2), 86–92. doi:10.1177/1541344603253928

Websites, News, Blogs:

Digital Learning Toolkit. (n.d.). Learning analytics. Retrieved from

Kelly, R. (2014, February 27). Feedback strategies for online courses. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from

Yale. (n.d.). Feedback on teaching. Retrieved from