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AMA Style Guide

In-Text Citations

AMA Style requires in-text citations that consist of numbered superscripts.

Example 1:

Among journalists, plagiarism has become a well known issue.  In fact, to a certain extent, “Every journalist lives in fear of inadvertent plagiarism (only idiots do it deliberately).”1

Example 2:

Renzetti2 attributes the rise in inadvertent plagiarism to a number of key developments. First, she claims that the widespread availability of technology has created a “mash-up generation” that assumes everything is free game. In addition, she states that …


When you quote, paraphrase, or summarize an author’s work, an in-text citation should appear in your research paper as a superscript Arabic numeral. Refer to section 3.6 (p. 64) in the AMA Manual of Style. Superscripts should appear outside of periods and commas, but inside colons and semicolons.


Johnson et al.,1 described that...

Multiple studies show that...2-5

Several research studies showed that...6,8



According to section 3.6 (p. 64) in the AMA Manual of Style, you can refer to specific page numbers within the superscript citation.


Smith3(pp50-52) reported that...



If the source (book, article, website, etc.) has more than 2 authors, list the first author followed by the words “et al”. Please see section 3.7 (p. 65) in the AMA Manual of Style for more information.


2 authors in-text: According to Smith and Mathews,3 the research shows...
More than 2 authors in-text: Smith et al4 reported that….