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AMA Style Guide, 11th ed.

Reference Examples

AMA Style uses a superscript-style of citation. References are listed at the end of the paper in numerical order as they appear in the body of your paper. Each source has its own superscript number. Single-space the reference list.

The Basics

  • Watch for punctuation, capitalization, font format, and order of information.
  • Be aware of what type of source you are citing. The information required for a reference varies depending on the type of source (book, journal article, webpage, etc.).
  • Keep track of your sources as you take notes. You may be surprised at how difficult it can be to track down a quote afterwards.



Journal titles in references should appear abbreviated and italicized. As shown in the examples, use upper-and-lower case letters. The NLM Catalog can help you locate journal title abbreviations. 


  • British Journal of Sports Medicine = Br J Sports Med
  • International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism = J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab
  • Isokinetics and Exercise Science = Isokinet Exerc Sci


Book titles in references consist of italics and upper-and-lower case letters. Words of 3 or fewer letters (e.g., and, the, is are typically lowercased.


  • Athletic Taping, Bracing, and Casting
  • Principles of Athletic Training: A Guide to Evidence Based Clinical Practice
  • Sports Psychology for Young Athletes

References Examples


  1. Tremblay MS, Chaput J, Adamo KB, et al. Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years (0–4 years): an integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:1-32. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4859-6
  2. Rachman S. Anxiety. 3rd ed. Psychology Press; 2013.
  3. Advil Nighttime. Package insert. Pfizer Consumer Healthcare; 2011.