Skip to Main Content

COMM10000D Business Communications: APA for Business Sources

Note to Sheridan students

The APA Style Guide for Business Sources has been modified from the APA Manual of Style (7th ed.) for Sheridan's Pilon School of Business students. Your professor may have different citing expectations than the rules outlined below. Always check at the beginning of term and before starting assignments that the citing rules you are using are appropriate for your class.

Where did you find the information?

Academic Search Complete

Referencing multiple authors
Bragg, M. A., Pageot, Y. K., Amico, A., Miller, A. N., Gasbarre, A., Rummo, P. E., & Elbel, B. (2020). Fast food, beverage, and snack brands on
       social media in the United States: An examination of marketing techniques utilized in 2000 brand posts. Pediatric Obesity15(5), 1–10.
In-text quote
(Bragg et al., 2020, p. #)
In-text paraphrase
(Bragg et al., 2020)

Skillport (formerly Books24X7database)

Levin, A. (2020). Influencer marketing for brands: What YouTube and Instagram can teach you about the future of digital marketing.
In-text quote
(Levin, 2020, p. #)

Business eBook Collection database 

Gilad, B. & Chussil, M. (2019). The new employee handbook: A no-holds-barred look at corporate life. Entrepreneur Press.
In-text quote
(Gilad & Chussil, 2019, p. #)




Business Source Complete

Referencing a report with DOI
Yao, B., Shanoyan, A., Peterson, H. H., Boyer, C., & Baker, L. (2019). The use of new‐media marketing in the green industry:
        Analysis of social media use and impact on sales.
       Agribusiness35(2), 281–297.
In-text quote
(Yao et al., 2019, p. #)

Business Source Complete- Business Searching Interface

Referencing a Company Profile Report with no DOI 
MarketLine. (2019, September 27). Company profile: Jaguar Land Rover Automotive Plc.
        BusinessSource Complete.
In-text quote
(MarketLine, 2019, p. #) 


Referencing an Industry Report with no DOI
Fitch Solutions Group Limited. (2020). Canada autos report: Includes 5-year forecasts to 2029.
        Canada Autos Report, (2)1-50.
In-text quote
(Fitch Solutions Group Limited, 2020, p. #)      


Referencing a Country Profile Report with no DOI                                                                               
India Country Monitor. (2020). Country/territory report- India. Business Source Complete.
In-text quote
(India Country Monitor, 2020, p. #)


Referencing advertising rates for a Magazine (Retrieval date is included because this information can be time sensitive)
Key Media International. (n.d.). Canadian HR Reporter. CARDonline. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from      
In-text citation
(Key Media International, n.d., Advertising Information and Rates section)   


Referencing a Country Profile​ 
Proquest. (n.d.). Federative Republic of Brazil. CultureGrams World Edition.
In-text quote identifying by section
(Proquest, n.d., Land and Climate section, para #)   

eMarketer PRO

Referencing a statistical chart
eMarketer. (2020, June). Snapchat users by country: 2020, millions [Chart].
In-text quote
(eMarketer, 2020, Comparative Estimates from Additional Sources section)

Euromonitor International's Passport database

Referencing a full report (Attribution given to Euromonitor. Analyst acknowledged within body of work. See Policy
Euromonitor. (2019, September 10). Consumer behaviour in Canada. Passport.
In-text quote using section title
(Euromonitor, 2019, Work life section) 


Referencing a company snapshot
FactSet Research Systems Inc. (2020). NIKE, Inc. Factiva.
In-text quote using section
(FactSet Research Systems Inc, 2020, Stock Price Activity section)


Broker Estimates report
FactSet. (n.d.). Apple, Inc.: Broker estimates. Retrieved January 16, 2013, from
Comparative Statistics report
FactSet. (n.d.). Apple, Inc.: Comparative statistics. Retrieved January 16, 2013, from
Targets and Ratings report
FactSet. (n.d.). Apple, Inc.: Targets and ratings. Retrieved January 16, 2013, from
10-K report
Apple Inc. (2011, September 24). Form 10-K.

Gale OneFile: Business

Pophal, L. (2020, May-June). Trends in influencer marketing. Information Today 37(4).
In-text quote
(Pophal, 2020, para #)

Gale OneFile: Economics and Theory

Referencing a Report 
Ghosh, A. (2020, April 17). Aligning brands to consumers emotional needs. Pitch.
In-text quote
(Ghosh, 2020, para. #)

Gartner Research

Referencing a Report 
Shen, S. & Daigler, J. (2020, March 26). Mitigate Coronavirus (COVID-19) business impacts with digital commerce. Gartner.
In-text quote
(Shen & Daigler, 2020, para. #)

IBIS World 

Referencing an Industry Report
Couillard, L. (2020, June). Canada industry (NAICS) report 72221bCA: Coffee & snack shops in Canada. IBISWorld.
In-text quote
(Couillard, 2020, Industry at a Glance section)

LinkedIn Learning

Referencing a Video Tutorial
Taylor, D. (2019, January 17). Excel: Introduction to charts and graphs [ online course].
In-text quote
(Taylor, 2019, Understand Excel chart concepts, section Identify different chart elements)


Mergent Online

Reference for an Industry Profile
Mergent. (2020, March). Banking: North America.
In-text paraphrase
(Mergent, 2020, p. #)


Reference for a Country Profile
Mergent. (2019). Country Profile: India.
In-text paraphrase
(Mergent, 2019, p. #)


Reference for an Equity Report (e.g. Annual Report or 10K)
Tesla Inc. (2018, December 31). Form 10-K. Mergent. 
In-text paraphrase
(Tesla Inc, 2018, p. #)

MTM- Media Technology Monitor

Reference for an  Profile
Media Technology Monitor. (2020, July 28). Change in media habits during COVID: Analysis of the Canadian market.
In-text paraphrase
(Media Technology Monitor [MTM], 2020, p. #)


Referencing a Report 

In-text paraphrase

(PrivCo, n.d.)

Note: If you are citing more than one report from the same year, see the Tips page for help. 

ProQuest Business Collection

Referencing a journal article

Harris, R. (2013). All jacked... down? Canadian Grocer, 127(3), 18-19.

In-text paraphrase
(Harris, 2013)
Referencing a newspaper article

Saunders, D. (2015, August 25). China's fever, everyone's disease. The Globe and Mail, p. A12.

In-text paraphrase
(Saunders, 2015)
​Referencing a company profile

Hoover's Company Records. (2020). Shoppers food warehouse corp. ProQuest Central.

In-text paraphrase
(Hoover's Company Records, 2020).




Referencing a data set report

SimplyAnalytics. (2019). Total Population in Toronto Metro Census 2019[Data set]. Environics. 

In-text paraphrase
(SimplyAnalytics, 2019)
Referencing a map

SimplyAnalytics. (2019). [Map of Toronto metro census with family income $200,000 and over]. Environics. 

In-text paraphrase
(SimplyAnalytics, 2019)

For more information and examples, see: How do I cite SimplyMap data?


Referencing a chart, infographic, etc.
Statista provides APA citations for all reports, graphics, etc.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (May 27, 2020). Agri-food and seafood imports from Canada to China from 2015 to 2019 (in billion Canadian dollars) [Graph]. Statista.

In-text paraphrase
(Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2020)


Statistics Canada Citation Guide

How to Cite Statistics Canada Products​
"This guide has been developed for authors, editors, researchers, academics, students, librarians and data librarians. It describes, in three steps, how to build bibliographic references when citing Statistics Canada products and materials."
You will need to adapt the Statistics Canada citation examples, which follow their own in-house citation style, to APA format.
Reference example

How to cite a table in Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada. (2020). Labour force characteristics, monthly, seasonally adjusted and trend-cycle, last 5 months (StatscanTable: 14-10-0287-01). Retrieved September 14, 2020, from

How to cite a custom table in Statistics Canada

Click "save my customization" to generate a URL that you can use in your reference, shown as below screenshot.




Thomson One

Referencing a company report

Zekauskas, J. (2020, March 10). Albemarle Corporation: J.P. Morgan conference takeaways [Analyst report]. Thomson ONE.

In-text quote
(Zekauskas, 2020)

Vividata (previously called PMB)

Referencing a Report 

Vividata. (2020). [Candy/snacks – chewing gum – prsnlly chewed past 6 mths, age 14+ by generation] [Data set]. Retrieved August 13, 2020 from

In-text paraphrase
(Vividata, 2020)


  • Include the category where your information was retrieved (e.g. Cat Litter).
  • Include the date as the categories may change yearly.
  • If you are retrieving information from the "graph it" feature, include the form of the data after the title. Example: Personally used in past 30 days, yes. [Graph].


Referencing an article

Rais T., Arakji T. (2020). Nestlé Fitness: Keep Going. WARC.

In text quote
(Rais and Arakji, 2020)


Referencing an annual report on a company website

Loblaw Companies Limited. (2019). 2019 Annual report.

In-text quote
(Loblaw Companies Limited, 2019)


Referencing a page on a website

Loblaw Companies Limited. (2016). Purpose & values. 

In-text quote
(Loblaw Companies Limited, 2016)

To see many more examples, and to get more help, please refer to one of the official APA Style websites below.

Common Terms

APA - American Psychological Association. APA style guide.

Annotated Bibliography

A bibliography with a brief description and/or evaluation of each source listed. See Purdue OWL for more information and help.


Giving credit or referencing the sources of information that have contributed to your work. Any ideas that are quoted, summarized, paraphrased must be cited, and any images, charts, graphics, tables. etc.

Corporate author

A web site, article or other information source published by an organization or corporation, with no individual author (writer) name provided.


A form of permanent link (see above) a "digital object identifier" which points to an online book, article, etc. If available, the DOI will be provided with the article or information source. Example, DOI: 10.1177/2329488414560107. See APA Style for more information.

In-text citation

A brief notation within the text that leads the reader to the complete documentation, in your References, of the source used. See APA Style for more information.


A periodical covering topics of interest to specific industries or professions (example: Journal of Business and Accounting).


          See APA Style for more information.


A series of publication published with a fixed interval between the issues or number. Journals, newspapers and magazines are all types of periodicals.

Permalink / Permanent Link

A URL or web address that will consistently point to a specific information source in a database.Permanent Links are provided by databases including ProQuest, Business Source Complete, and LexisNexis

Publication title

The name of a periodical, journal, newspaper or magazine, e.g. Wall Street Journal, Globe & Mail, Journal of Business Case Studies.


The organization who publishes a journal, newspaper, periodical, book or magazine title, e.g. Harvard University Press, Fast Company, Inc., Rogers Media Inc.


           More information can be found in APA Style and Purdue OWL.


A list of sources that you you cited (using in-text citations) during in your research, and containing the information needed to locate the exact item. See APA Style for more information.

Scholarly/peer reviewed journal/article

An article in a scholarly journal (published by university or academic, research or professional organizations) which has been reviewed and evaluated by experts in the subject. See this page for more information.


            More information can be found in Purdue OWL.

Title or Document Title

The name of an article or report, contained in a periodical, e.g. "Barrick scraps co-president model as top miner retires", an article in the Globe and Mail newspaper.


How to Cite Direct Quotations

How to Cite long Quotation

Citing Works With the Same Author and Date


Co-author: Elizabeth Schembri