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APA Style (7th ed.)

Personal Communication

The Basics

Personal communications include any unpublished (or informally published) content that cannot be retrieved by others. Example: conversations, email correspondence, lecture notes, posts from a private social media account, etc. No reference entry is required.



Provide an in-text citation only

(K. Oakey, personal communication, June 15, 2018)

See Section 8.9 of the Publication Manual.

Your professor may have different citing expectations than library staff. Always check at the beginning of term and before starting assignments that the citing rules you are using are appropriate for your class.