Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA Style (7th ed)

Personal Communication

NOTE: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (7th ed), which released in October 2019. If you require the previous version, please see APA Style (6th ed)

The Basics

Personal communications include any unpublished (or informally published) content that cannot be retrieved by others. Example: conversations, email correspondence, lecture notes, posts from a private social media account, etc. No reference entry is required.

Examples

Generic

Provide an in-text citation only

(K. Oakey, personal communication, June 15, 2018)

See Section 8.9 of the Publication Manual.

Your professor may have different citing expectations than library staff. Always check at the beginning of term and before starting assignments that the citing rules you are using are appropriate for your class.