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MLA Style (9th ed.)

Personal Communications

The Basics

Personal communications include any unpublished (or informally published) content that cannot be retrieved by others. Examples include interviews (that have not been published), conversations, emails, and text messages. To cite class material, please review the guidelines for Lecture Notes & Class Materials


Last Name of Interviewee, First Name of Interviewee. Type of communication. Conducted by First Name Last Name of Interviewer, date.


Works Cited

In-Text Citation



Interview conducted by you:

Smith, John. Personal interview with the author. 20 July 2022.

Interview conducted by someone else:

Smith, John. Interview. Conducted by Nicola Jakobsen, 20 July 2022.


Text message sent to you 

Wilder, Nadine. Text message to the author. 1 Aug. 2022.


Email not sent to you

Patel, P. Email to Sheridan Library. 15 June 2022. 


How to cite

Your professor may have different citing expectations than library staff. Always check at the beginning of term and before starting assignments that the citing rules you are using are appropriate for your class.